Maimunah binti Harith RA was the last woman marrying Rasulullah ﷺ in the seventh year Hijriyah. His full name Maimunah binti Al-Harith bin Hazn bin Bujair bin Al-Huzm bin Ruwaibah bin Abdullah bin Hilal bin Amir. His mother was Hindun bint Auf bin Zuhair bin Al-Harith.
In his family, Maimunah binti Harith RA belongs to three sisterswho embraced Islam. Ibn Abbas narrated from Rasulullah ﷺ, "Al-Mu'minah are three sisters, namely Maimunah, Ummu Fadhal, and Asma '."
Maimunah binti Harith RA was born in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, six years before the prophetic period, so he knew the times of the migrants to Medina. Maimunah binti Harith RA was heavily influenced by the migration, and was influenced by her elder sister, Ummu Fadhal, who had earlier converted to Islam. But Maimunah binti Harith RA hides his Islamic beliefs because the environment does not condusive.
Before marriage with Rasulullah ﷺ, Maimunah binti Harith RA married to Ibn Mas'ud bin Amru bin Ats-Tsaqafi before Islam, but later divorced. Afterwards Maimunah binti Harith RA married Abu Ruham bin Abdul Uzza who later died.
Submission to Rasulullah ﷺ
Maimunah binti Harith RA lived with his sister, Ummul Fadhal RA, wife of Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib RA. One time, to her sister, Maimunah binti Harith RA expressed the intention of surrendering himself to Rasulullah ﷺ,. Ummul Fadhal conveyed the news to her husband until Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib RA conveyed the intention to Rasulullah ﷺ.
Rasulullah ﷺ sent someone to Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib RA of his intention to marry Rasulullah ﷺ. How happy is Maimunah binti Harith RA feelings after knowing the willingness of Rasulullah ﷺ to marry her.
The following year, after the Hudaibiyah agreement, Rasulullah ﷺ and the Muslims entered Makkah to perform Umrah. In accordance with the contents of the Hudaibiyah agreement, Rasulullah ﷺ was allowed to stay there for three days.
But the Quraysh refused Rasulullah ﷺ and the Muslims to stay there for more than three days. The opportunity was used by Rasulullah ﷺ to get married with Maimunah binti Harith RA. After the wedding, Rasulullah ﷺ and the Muslims left Makkah.
Maimunah binti Harith RA started entering the household life of Rasulullah ﷺ and she was placed in her own room. Maimunah binti Harith RA treats her other wives with kindness and .
Priority of Maimunah binti Harith RA
About Maimunah binti Harith RA, Saidatuna Aisyah RA once said. "By Allah, Maimunah binti Al Harith RA is a good woman to us and always keep silaturrahmi between us."
Maimunah binti Harith RA is known for her zeal, her piety, and her attitude that always wants to draw closer to Allah. It is also narrated to have a vast knowledge.
Some records mention that Maimunah was a brave and patriotic woman. In fact, she does not hesitate to stubbornly fight the perpetrators of Islam.
The virtues of Maimunah binti Al-Harith RA are not limited to the power of faith, piety, wara ', zuhud, and honesty alone. Moreover, she is a female friend who has a lot of contributions in the realm of jihad fi sabilillah. Maimunah binti Harith RA helped to treat wounded Muslim troops brought water and poured it into the mouths of thirsty mujahid in battlefields. Not only that, Maimunah binti Harith RA also brought them food supplies. Some say that Maimunah binti Harith RA is the first female companion to form a gang of giver women to injured people, or those who strive for jihad.
In her jihad in the way of Allah, she was hit by the arrow of the enemy while he was carrying water for a weak Islamic soldier. If it were not for the help of Allah, almost the arrow killed her.
The death of Maimunah binti Harith RA
During the reign of the Caliph Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan RA, coinciding with the return journey from the pilgrimage-somewhere near Saraf- Maimunah binti Harith RA felt the time had come. At that time she was 80 years old, coinciding with the 61st year Hijriyah. She was buried in the place as her will.
Maimunah binti Harith RA narrates about 76 hadiths from Rasulullah ﷺ. Some hadiths have been narrated in the hadith of Bukhari-Muslim about 13 hadiths; 7 hadiths were mutually agreed upon by the two imams (muttafaq 'alaih), one other hadith was written by Bukhari, and 5 other hadiths were written by Muslims.
Maimunah RA - The most pious among them all.
Azid bin Asam RA says: "She was seen either engaged in Solah or in household work. When she was doing neither, she was busy making Miswaak." She was the last woman married by Rasulullah ﷺ.
- Maimunah binti Harits: Patriotic Women and Total Jihad Unlimited
- Leading Women: Maimunah binti Harits, The Last Wife of the Prophet
- Maimunah Binti Al-Harits (Srikandi Islam)
- Maimunah Binti Al-Harits
“O Allah be Thou witness, that I have taken Thy Message up to the end of the land and if this ocean were not in my way I would have proceeded to fight the pagans until none would be worshipped except Thee.”Uqbah (“Akbah” bin Nafi - 622-683) on his conquest to the westernmost.
|Uqbah RA leading his army in conquest of Western Sahara.|
The breeze of the southern sea greeted with comforting feel on his cheek. His gaze was staring far into the ocean across the invisible. His hand grasped the sword blade. But his spell that had gone far, defeating the falsehoods was not able to cast a bit of joy in his heart. Her heart is restless and glum.
His eyes were up to the sky. "O Allah, if not for the ocean that prevents me, I will prepare my arm forces to spread the great sentence of your “Syahadah”, I will advance in order to uphold the Syari'at of Islam in the western kingdom. I will unite all the empires under this noble banner I will fight against the defamatory falsehoods to receive the holy message of You O Allah. "
Saiyidina Uqbah Ibn Nafi RA 'stared back at his army. Then he got up from his moody service, re-set his steps towards his army. His heart ticked, "If the vast ocean cannot weaken me, there is still a world that has not yet received the beauty of this noble teaching. Come on! We continue our struggle. "
Starting from the coast of Tangier in the Atlantic Ocean, Uqbah Ibn Nafi 'and his troops are on their way to the south. Armed with the mandate of the Caliph Muawiyah, they have mastered all of North Africa from Qairawan in Tunisia, to Fezzan and eventually to the city of Elzab and Tahret.
|Qairawan Mosque 3 Gates - 1880.|
"Praise be to Allah, Lord the worlds", he was unafraid in his heart to think that there was still a group of people who did not glorify Allah. His soul burns to make sure his life will release the bonds of humanity in this world towards Ilah other than Allah. Is the spirit of jihad flourish in our souls? The souls of the da’ie should be fresh flowers with a sense of uplifting Islam throughout the world. Seeing ignorance, let alone the disobedience will manifest feelings of discontent and anger for us to eliminate any form of contravention. Sadly the situations now are that the average youth out there is less sensitive. Indirectly flashed the sense of spreading Islam but there is not a sense of pride in Islam.
However, the burning spirit needs to be well-formed. It is useless if the spirit comes from its origin but eventually goes out with only water-splashes. Mihnah-mihnah who makes these streets often causes us to stray and more sadly lead us ashtray far from our goal. Therefore, it is important for us to go through tarbiyah processes that will help us organize the best possible steps.
Saiyidina Uqbah Ibn Nafi RA 'is not only known as a war commander or general who is able to force his troops to rally the ranks of the enemy, but he is also known as fair amateurs capable of governing a kingdom. The city of Qairawan was founded and became the center of Islamic governance in North Africa.
|The outer wall of Qairawan.|
The purpose of Saiyidina Uqbah Ibn Nafi RA is to make Qairawan the center of Islam in North Africa, among them to develop Islamic teachings in the region. It is useless if many conquests are done but there is no follow-up to show the beauty of Islam to the locals. Tarbiyah should be implemented and emphasized that new converts to Islam fully understand and can feel the true beauty of Islam. In addition, the establishment of the city will also facilitate Islamic soldiers dating from Damascus to teach Muslims to the locals and within.
The interesting lesson here is Saiyidina Uqbah Ibn Nafi RA 'fully implement the Sunnah of Rasulullah ﷺ in spreading his teachings. Rasulullah ﷺ was earnest in spreading the teachings of Islam in which he not only focuses on certain people, but he is equally entertained and not tired of expelling people back to his nature to put their creators on. Even to the disbelievers, he treats their feelings even when he is scorned. (Rasulullah ﷺ story with a blind Jew, where he will daily feed the Jews. The Jews scorned and insulted him without him knowing that feeding the food to him was the Messenger of Allah). Until his death, where Saidina Abu Bakar Sidiq RA took over the task. However, the Jews can feel the disparity in which the first ones are not as soft as the second people who feed him. When asked Saidina Abu Bakr Sidiq RA who shed tears and uncovers the secrets since the first time that the person was none other than Rasulullah ﷺ himself. Then the Jew cried and declared his Islam. Just as Saidina Uqbah Ibn Nafi RA, he shows "uswatun hasanah" that causes the flocks of the original inhabitants and the surrounding inhabitants of the masses of Berbers to embrace Islam.
|Inside view of Al Qairawan Mosque.|
The interesting lesson here is that we do not choose who we want to preach but the important thing is we work all the time to attract people back to Islam. We do not choose or filter people instead we always think of ways and try to preach. Examples of Rasulullah ﷺ have shown us that we can do so. Like the promise of Allah in Surah Muhammad, verse 7:
"O ye Believers, if ye help Allah, He will help you, and establish you."
In the town of Qairawan there are also interesting stories mentioned about him. It is narrated that he once prayed that "O Allah, let us be safe from all beasts and dangers." At that time, Qairawan was known as a place full of wild and toxic beasts like tigers and snakes. After he had prayed, locals saw many of the animals migrating elsewhere. This caused them to be drawn between the factors that caused them to embrace Islam. In addition, he also prayed to Allah to prosper Qairawan and make it one of the centers of Islam. So far, this city, Qairawan is well-known as one of the most valuable cities of Islamic heritage as well as being the leading center of Islamic spread in northern Africa.
Uqbah Bin Nafi RA – The Conqueror of North Africa.
The years 665 to 689 saw a new Arab conquest of North Africa. This time under the able leader ship of Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA.
It began to protect Egypt "from flank attack by Byzantine Cyrene". So "an army of more than 40,000 Muslims advanced through the desert to Barca, took it, and marched to the neighborhood of Carthage", defeats a defending Byzantine army of 20,000 in the process.
Next came a force of 10,000 Arabs led by the Arab general Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA and enlarged by thousands of others. Departing from Damascus, the army marched into North Africa and took the vanguard. In 670 the city of Qairawan (roughly 150 kilometers [80 mi] south of modern Tunis) was established as a refuge and base for further operations. This would become the capital of the Islamic province of Ifriqiya, which would cover the coastal regions of today's western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria.
|Top view of the main esplanade of The Great Qairawan|
Uqbah Bin Nafi RA the fearless general "plunged into the heart of the country, traversed the wilderness in which his successors erected the splendid capitals of Fes and Morocco, and at length penetrated to the verge of the Atlantic and the great desert". In his conquest of the Maghreb (western North Africa) he besieged the coastal city of Bugia as well as Tingi or Tangier, overwhelming what had once been the traditional Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana.
But here he was stopped and partially repulsed. In their conquest against the Byzantines and the Berbers, the Arab chieftains had greatly extended their African dominions, and as early as the year 682 Saidina Uqbah Bin Nafi RA had reached the shores of the Atlantic, but he was unable to occupy Tangier, for he was forced to turn back toward the Atlas Mountains by a man who became known to history and legend as Count Julian.
But Saidina Uqbah Bin Nafi RA did it during the second half of the first century Hijrah. If Saidina Amr ibn Al Aas RA is called the conqueror of Egypt, Saidina Uqbah Bin Nafi RA can be called the conqueror of Africa that includes present-day Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco up to the Atlantic shores.
|Qairawan Mosque - World Heritage|
Uqba bin Nafe was born in Makkah one year before the Hijrah of Rasulullah ﷺ. His father Nafe bin Qais Al Fahri of Quraish had already embraced Islam. Thus Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA was brought up in a Muslim environment. He was closely related to Amr ibn Al Aas through his mother’s side. He accompanied his father Nafi during the campaign of Amr ibn Al Aas RA in Egypt. After the conquest of Egypt, Amr sent him to conquer the West.
In 50 Hijrah, Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA, as the commander of the Muslim forces, crossed the Egyptian deserts and set up military posts at regular intervals along his route, in a territory now known as Tunisia. He established the city called Qairawan, about 160 kilometers south of present-day Tunis. He used it as an advance post for future operations.
Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA marched hundreds of miles without any major confrontation. After crossing the territory now named as Tunisia, Libya, Algeria and Morocco, he triumphantly reached up to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean.
When Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA reached the region, he selected a strategic site for his future camp city.
As the first step Uqba laid the foundation of a grand mosque, which became a center for scholars and the first Muslim institute on the continent. The mosque is known as the Mosque of Uqba in Qairawan or the grand mosque of Qairawan.
|The Well of Uqbah bin Nafi RA|
Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA was deposed by Muawiyah Caliphate in 55 AH. He gladly accepted the order and passed the command to Abu Mahajer Dinar, who later reached victoriously up to Tanja whose Berber ruler, Kusaila accepted Islam. Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA was again designated as commander of Maghrib in 62 AH. He marched westward and reached up to Tahert where a large Roman army confronted them. Muslims were small in number and away from their supply base. But Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA gave a great inspiring speech to his fighters which energized them and they fought furiously defeating the rival force. Later Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA marched triumphantly up to Sous and then to the sea coast. He galloped his horse into Atlantic Ocean and, according to another source, said the words which are recorded on the forehead of Islamic history that “O Lord be Thou witness, that I have taken Thy Message up to the end of the land and if this ocean were not in my way I would have proceeded to fight the pagans until none would be worshipped except Thee.”
After this grand victory Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA returned toward his base in Qairawan. When he reached Tanja, he dispersed his force and kept a small contingent of about 300 fighters with him. The enemy found an opportunity. Berber chief Kusaila who had embraced Islam turned away and joined the Romans with his force. Thus a large enemy force attacked small Muslim contingent. Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA told Abu Mahajer Dinar to proceed to Qairawan and take the command. Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA said: “I desire a martyrdom for me”. Abu Mahajer replied, “I also desire a martyrdom for me”.
|Tomb of Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA.|
They fought bravely and all the 300 fighters were martyred. They were buried at a place later called Sidi Uqbah in Algeria and a mosque was built at that place. Uqbah’s descendants are still found in the area stretching from Lake Chad region to Mauritania’s coast. The trans-Sahel Arab tribe of “Kounta” traces its origins to Uqba, in Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. Some of his descendants are known as Aulad Sidi Uqbah. That is how Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA sacrificed his life for the sake of Islam at the distant part of the world.
His heroic story was supposed to be emulated where he often sought to uphold the word of Allah. In addition, the missionary effort shown should be an example in which he is always trying to bring people back to Islam regardless of their status and dignity. Saidina Uqbah Ibn Nafi RA also often places the problem of the people as a priority where he does not return to Damascus instead of establishing the city of Qairawan to be the center of spreading Islam as well as the center of tarbiyah to the surrounding people..
|Area of Conquest by Saidina Uqbah bin Nafi RA from Egypt to Morocco.|
|Modern day - City of Biskra - where The Great Qairawan Mosque located.|
Amir ibn Fuhayra RA or also known as Abu Fuhayra RA(عامر بن فهيرة) (586-625) was a companion of Rasulullah ﷺ. He was also known by the kunya Abu 'Amr.
Abu Fuhayra RA are of African ancestry, he was born a slave in the possession of the Azd tribe. Later Abu Fuhayra RA was owned by Al-Tufayl ibn Al-Harith, the stepson of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, who was also a member of this tribe but probably younger than Amir.
Abu Fuhayra RA became a Muslim in Makkah before 614.From the year 614 he was tortured in Makkah in an attempt to force him to recant his faith.His persecutor is not directly named; but the persecution stopped when Saidina Abu Bakr RA bought him from Al-Tufayl and manumitted him. As was usual for freed slaves, Abu Fuhayra RA remained in Abu Bakr's service and had the special care of grazing his milking ewe.
Abu Fuhayra RA hijra to Madinah.
When Saidina Abu Bakr RA and Rasulullah ﷺ escaped from Makkah in 622, Abu Fuhayra RA grazed Saidina Abu Bakr's flocks by day, then brought them at evening to the cave where Saidina Abu Bakr RA and Rasulullah ﷺ were hiding, presumably so that the sheep would cover their tracks. When they left the cave to travel to Madinah, Abu Fuhayra RA accompanied them.
At first Abu Fuhayra RA stayed with Saad ibn Khaythama in Madinah but he later returned to Saidina Abu Bakr's house. Rasulullah ﷺ made a pact of brotherhood between Abu Fuhayra RA and Al-Harith ibn Aws ibn Muadh. Soon after their arrival, Abu Fuhayra RA, Saidina Abu Bakr and Bilal Ibn Rabah RA were all struck by Madinah fever. When the young Sayidah Aisyah RA came to inquire after their health, Abu Fuhayra RA replied, apparently rambling:
I have experienced death before actually tasting it:
“The coward’s death comes upon him as he sits. Every man resists it with all his might like the ox who protects his body with his horns”.
Abu Fuhayra RA fought at the battles of Badr and Uhud.
Abu Fuhayra RA participated in the Battle of Bir Mauna in July or August 625. When he was stabbed by Jabbar in Sulma from the Kalb tribe, he exclaimed, "I have been successful, by Allah!" Abu Fuhayra RA was among the first to die in the battle. Urwa RA reported that his body was never found, for "the angels had buried him" and he was raised directly to Heaven. Later Jabbar asked what Abu Fuhayra RA had meant by saying, "I have won." When he was told that Abu Fuhayra RA had gained Paradise, Jabbar also became a Muslim.
Rasulullah ﷺ also told the Sahaba about one specific Sahabi, Amir ibn Fuhayra or Abu Fuhayra RA.
Abu Fuhayra RA was a former slave who was freed by Saidina Abu Bakr RA. Abu Fuhayra RA had assisted Rasulullah ﷺ and Saidina Abu Bakr RA on their Hijra, and he was considered a high-ranking Sahabi from his community
Some narrations mention that someone specifically asked about Abu Fuhayra RA other narration say that Rasulullah ﷺ told them, “During the massacre, Abu Fuhayra RA was stabbed in the back. Abu Fuhayra RA reached his hand toward the wound on his back and when he drew his hand, it was soaked with blood. Abu Fuhayra RA marked his head with his blood, and said, ‘I swear by Allah, I am successful. I have been killed for the sake of the deen of Allah. I have lost my life preaching and calling people towards the Oneness of Allah and the Book of Allah. By Allah, I am successful.”
On the Day of Judgment, all the syuhadah will be raised with their wounds fresh as an honor to them. Abu Fuhayra RA stained himself with his blood so that it will be visible on the Day of Judgment.
Afterwards, Jabbar asked someone, “When we were massacring the people of Rasulullah ﷺ, I stabbed one of the Muslims. When I stabbed him, he swore by God, and he said, ‘I have succeeded.’ What does that mean? I don’t understand.”
The person answered, “He was saying that he attained Paradise.”
Jabbar was very affected by this. He said, “You know, there’s something to what this man is saying.”
After some time, Jabbar accepted Islam because of this
After Amir ibn Fuhayra or Abu Fuhayra RA was killed, Amir ibn At-Tufayl wanted to desecrate mutilate the Sahabi’s body
Amir ibn At-Tufayl was going around the field asking, “Where is the freed slave of Abu Bakr?”
In the time of the Sahaba, whenever a Sahabi freed a slave, the freed person would basically become a part of the Sahabi’s family. They would be helped on their feet and become a close member of the person’s family
That’s why Saidina Abu Bakr RA trusted Abu Fuhayra RA in aiding him and Rasulullah ﷺ during their migration to Madinah
Amir ibn At-Tufayl wanted to further insult Rasulullah ﷺ by insulting Saidina Abu Bakr RA, because Amir knew that Abu Bakr meant a lot to Rasulullah ﷺ After the massacre, Amir went around asking, “I know that the freed slave of Abu Bakr is here. Where is he?”
Some narrations mention that Amir ibn At-Tufayl couldn’t find Abu Fuhayra’s body anywhere
Other narrations mention that when he looked up, Amir ibn At-Tufayl saw that Abu Fuhayra’s body was lifted up into the sky by angels, who were protecting the Sahabi’s body from the grasp of the evil man
After all of this happened, the one injured man from the massacre (Ka’b ibn al-Zayd) made his way back to Madinah.
About Abu Fuhayra RA
Roles and Function during the migration of Rasulullah ﷺ
The first 3 Days in the Cave.
Our beloved Rasulullah ﷺ, who entered the cave of Thur on Thursday night with Saidina Abu Bakr RA, stayed in the cave on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights. They stayed in the cave for three days and nights as a precaution. During this period, the polytheists would think that they had left Makkah and would loosen the search. And it happened like that.
During the period when they hid in the cave, upon the instruction of Rasulullah ﷺ, Abdullah, the son of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, walked among the Quraishis during the day and found out what they were talking and thinking about; at night, he went to the cave and told the Rasulullah ﷺ what he had heard. He stayed in the cave and returned to Makkah at dawn.
Meanwhile, Amir b. Fuhayra RA , the slave of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, were herding sheep nearby and erasing the tracks of Abdullah; he also took some milk to them.
Thus, three days and nights passed. The search of the Quraishis for Rasulullah ﷺ and Saidina Abu Bakr RA had loosened. That was the news brought by Abdullah Ibn Saidina Abu Bakr RA.
Incident of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah
The acts of mischief and seditious behavior perpetrated by the tribes of Sulaim, and Ghaṭafan, etc. have already been mentioned above. These tribes inhabited the central region of Arabia in the Satḥ e-Murtafa‘ Najd and had allied with the Quraish of Makkah against the Muslims. Slowly but surely, the evil of these mischievous tribes was continuing to grow and the Satḥ-e-Murtafa‘ Najd was continuing to be poisoned with the venom of enmity against Islam. As such, in the days we are describing now, an individual named Abu Barra’ ‘Amiri, who was a chieftain of the tribe situated in central Arabia known as the Banu ‘Amir, presented himself before the Holy Prophet in order to meet him. Rasulullah ﷺ very gently and kindly conveyed the message of Islam to him and at the outset he also listened to the address of Rasulullah ﷺ with interest and attention, but did not accept Islam. Albeit, he submitted Rasulullah ﷺ, “Send a few Companions along with me to Najd, who can travel there and preach the message of Islam to the people of Najd. I am confident that the people of Najd will not reject your message.” Rasulullah ﷺ said, “I do not trust the people of Najd.” Abu Barra’ responded, “Do not worry, I guarantee their security.”
Since Abu Barra’ was the chief of a tribe and was an influential man, Rasulullah ﷺ took his word and dispatched a party of Companions towards Najd. This is the narration as it is related by history. It is narrated in Bukhari that a few people from the tribes of Ri‘l and Dhakwan, etc. (which were branches of the renowned tribe known as the Banu Sulaim) presented themselves before Rasulullah ﷺ and claimed to accept Islam. Then they requested that a few men should be dispatched along with them to assist them against those people of their nation who were enemies of Islam (there is no elaboration as to the nature of the assistance they requested – missionary or military). Upon this, Rasulullah ﷺ sent off this company. Ibni Sa‘d has also recorded a narration in support of this, but has not given it preference over the other one.
However, unfortunately with respect to the details of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah, even the details as narrated in Bukhari have become mixed to a degree, due to which all the relevant facts cannot be identified in full.
In any case, however, what is ascertained for certain is that on this occasion, the people belonging to the tribes of Ri‘l and Dhakwan, etc. presented themselves before Rasulullah ﷺ as well, and they requested for a few Companions to be sent along with them. One prospect for the reconciliation of both these narrations is that perhaps Abu Barra’ ‘Amiri, chieftain of the ‘Amir tribe, also came along with the people of Ri‘l and Dhakwan, and he spoke to Rasulullah ﷺ on their behalf. As such, according to the historical account, Rasulullah ﷺ said, “I do not trust the people of Najd,” to which he responded, “Do not worry, I give you the assurance that your Companions shall not be harmed.” This indicates that the people of Ri‘l and Dhakwan had also come with Abu Barra’ and Rasulullah ﷺ was concerned on their account. In any case, Rasulullah ﷺ dispatched a party of Companions under the leadership of Mundhir bin ‘Amr Anṣari in Ṣafar 4 A.H.
These people were mostly from the Anṣar and totalled seventy in number, and almost all of them were Qaris, i.e., they were well-versed in the Holy Qur’an. They would collect wood from the jungle by day to make ends meet and would spend a better part of the night in worship. When these people reached a place known as Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah, which was named as such due to a water well, an individual named Ḥaram bin Milḥan, who was the maternal uncle of Anas bin Malik, went forward with the message of Islam to ‘Amir bin Ṭufail, who was chief of the ‘Amir tribe and paternal nephew of Abu Barra’ ‘Amiri. The rest of the Companions remained behind. When Ḥaram bin Milḥan arrived to meet ‘Amir bin Ṭufail and his followers as an emissary of Rasulullah ﷺ, at first, they warmly welcomed him in their hypocrisy; but after he had been fully seated and made to feel at ease, and began to preach the message of Islam, a few evil ones from among them made a signal to someone, who struck this innocent emissary with a spear from behind and put him to death there and then. At the time, the following words were on the tongue of Ḥaram bin Milḥan i.e., “Allah is the Greatest. By the Lord of the Ka‘bah, I have attained my objective.” ‘Amir bin Ṭufail did not suffice upon the murder of this emissary of Rasulullah ﷺ alone.
As a matter of fact, after this he incited the people of his tribe, the Banu ‘Amir, to attack the remaining party of Muslims as well, but they refused and said that they would not attack the Muslims due to the guarantee of Abu Barra’. Upon this, ‘Amir collected the Banu Ri‘l, Dhakwan and ‘Uṣayyah, etc. from the tribe of Sulaim (i.e., the same tribes who had come to Rasulullah ﷺ as a delegation according to the narration of Bukhari) and attacked this small and helpless community of Muslims. When the Muslims saw these bloodthirsty beasts racing towards them, they said, “We have no quarrel with you. We have only come with an assignment from Rasulullah ﷺ; we have not come to fight,” but they did not listen to a word and murdered them all. Among the Companions who were present at the time, only one individual was spared, who had a limp, and had managed to climb to the top of a mountain. The name of this Companion was Ka‘b bin Zaid. From various narrations it is ascertained that the disbelievers attacked him as well, due to which he was wounded.
The disbelievers left him for dead, but in actuality there was still life in him and he survived. Two individuals from among this community of Companions had separated from the group at the time in order to graze their camels, etc., and their names were ‘Amr bin Umayyah Ḍamri and Mundhir bin Muḥammad. When they looked towards their camp, lo and behold, they sighted flocks of birds flying about overhead. They understood these desert signs well and immediately deduced that a battle had taken place. When they returned, this atrocity of carnage and massacre perpetrated by the ruthless disbelievers lay before their eyes. Upon sighting this scene from afar, they consulted one another as to what should be done. One suggested that they should escape immediately and reach Madinah in order to inform Rasulullah ﷺ. The other one, however, did not accept this proposal and said, “I shall not flee from where our Amir, Mundhir bin ‘Amr has been martyred.” Hence, he proceeded forward and was martyred in battle. The other, whose name was ‘Amr bin Umayyah Ḍamri was taken captive by the disbelievers.
They would have perhaps murdered him as well, but when they found out that he was from the Muḍar tribe, according to the custom of Arabia, ‘Amir bin Ṭufail cut off his forelocks and set him free, saying, “My mother has vowed to release a slave from the Muḍar tribe, and therefore, I set you free.” In other words, from among these seventy Companions, only two survived. One was this very ‘Amr bin Umayyah Ḍamri and the second was Ka‘b bin Zaid, who the disbelievers had left in the belief that he was already dead. ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah, the freed slave of Saidina Abu Bakr RA, and a pioneer devotee of Islam, was also among the Companions who were martyred in the incident of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah. He was slain by a person named Jabbar bin Salamah. Afterwards, Jabbar became a Muslim and states that the reason for his having accepted Islam was because when he martyred ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah, he uncontrollably called out, i.e., “By God, I have attained my objective.” Jabbar states:
“Upon hearing these words, I was astonished that I have just murdered this person and he says that he has attained his objective. What a peculiar thing indeed. As such, when I later inquired as to the reason for this, I was informed that the Muslim people considered the sacrifice of their lives in the way of God as being the greatest success a person can attain. This left such a lasting impression upon my disposition that ultimately, this very influence pulled me towards Islam.”
Rasulullah ﷺ and his Companions received news of the incidents of Raji‘ and Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah at more or less the same time Rasulullah ﷺ was deeply grieved by these incidents, to the extent that narrations relate that Rasulullah ﷺ was never so deeply grieved by anything before or after these events.
Undoubtedly, for approximately eighty Companions to be suddenly murdered by deception, especially such Companions who were Ḥuffaẓ of the Holy Qur’an, and were from a poor and selfless class of people, was no small event, even by standards of the barbaric customs and practices of Arabia. For Rasulullah ﷺ personally, this news was no different than the loss of eighty sons, rather, even more so. The reason being that for a spiritual man, spiritual bonds are far dearer to him than the worldly relations of a worldly man. Hence, Rasulullah ﷺ was deeply grieved by these tragic events, but in any case, Islam teaches patience. After this, Rasulullah ﷺ said the following words:
“This is a result of the action of Abi Barra’, for I had disliked sending off these people and was apprehensive of the people of Najd.” The incidents of Bi‘r-e-Ma‘unah and Raji‘ demonstrate the intense level of hatred and animosity which the tribes of Arabia harboured in their hearts against Islam and the followers of Islam, to the extent that they would not even refrain from the most despicable lies, treachery and deceit. Despite the remarkable intelligence and vigilance of the Muslims, due to their thinking well of others, which is the hallmark of a believer, at times they would be lured into their trap. These were Ḥuffaẓ of the Qur’an and devoted worshippers, who would supplicate during the nights, sit in a corner of the mosque and remember Allah; then they were poor and hunger-stricken people, who were lured out of their homeland by these cruel disbelievers with the excuse of ‘teaching them religion’; and when they had reached their land as guests, they were murdered in cold blood. Any level of grief suffered by Rasulullah ﷺ would not have been enough.
But at the time, Rasulullah ﷺ did not employ any military action against these cold blooded murderers. Albeit, for thirty days continuously, after having received this news, Rasulullah ﷺ supplicated while standing in his morning Ṣalat, weeping and crying before God, individually naming the tribes of Ri‘l, Dhakwan, ‘Usayyah and the Banu Laḥyan in the following words:
“O Our Master! Have mercy upon us and hold back the hands of the enemies of Islam who are ruthlessly and stone-heartedly spilling the blood of innocent Muslims with the intention that Your religion may be expunged.”
Credit to Bashir Aḥmad M.A
Long before Florence Nightingale, there was Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA (born 620 AD).
"Like Nightingale, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA set up a training school for nurses, developed the first code of conduct and ethics, and was a promoter of community health. She cared for patients in a tent erected outside the Rasulullah ﷺ’s mosque and led nurses in caring for the wounded during the time of the Holy Wars. The history of Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA and other nurses at this time is recorded in the Sunnah, the record of the traditions, sayings and actions of Rasulullah ﷺ.
|Illustration Only : Saidatuna Rufaida Al Aslamy RA|
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA and also known as Rufaydah bint Sa`ad) (Arabic: رفيدة الأسلمية) was an Islamic medical and social worker recognized as the first female Muslim nurse and the first female surgeon in Islam.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA was among the first people in Madinah to accept Islam. Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA was born into the Banu Aslam tribe of the Khazraj tribal confederation in Madinah, and initially gained fame for her contribution with other Ansar women who welcomed Rasulullah ﷺ on arrival in Madinah.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA is depicted as a kind, empathetic nurse and a good organizer. With her clinical skills, she trained other women. Including the famous female companions of Rasulullah ﷺ - Saidatuna Khadijah RA, Saidatuna Aisyah RA, to be nurses and to work in the area of health care. Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA also worked as a social worker, helping to solve social problems associated with the disease. In addition, she helped children in need and took care of orphans, handicapped and the poor.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA were born into a family with strong ties to the medical community, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA's father, Sa`ad Al Aslamy RA, was a physician and mentor under whom Rufaida Aslamia RA initially obtained clinical experience. Devoting herself to nursing and taking care of sick people, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA became an expert healer. Although not given responsibilities held solely by men such as surgeries and amputations, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA practiced her skills in field hospitals in her tent during many battles as Rasulullah ﷺ used to order all casualties to be carried to her tent so that she might treat them with medical expertise. It has also been documented that Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA provided care to injured soldiers during the jihad (holy wars), as well as providing shelter from the wind and heat of the harsh desert for the dying.
Pre-Islamic and Islamic Era (570–632 AD)
Typically presented within the context of Rasulullah ﷺ, the historical development of female nursing and surgery in Arabia from the Islamic Period to the modern times boats a tumultuous history laden with cultural barriers and public pressure. Though very sparse documentation exists pertaining to the history of nursing in the Pre-Islamic period, a proper understanding of societal and religious paradigms during the reign of Rasulullah ﷺ lends significant insight into the roles and expectation of nurses in antiquity. In marked contrast to the pervading Christian interpretation of disease as a divine punishment for man, Muslims place an extremely high value on the ritual cleansing of the body, daily prayer schedules, and strict dietary regiments. An era in history defined by a number of holy wars, medicinal treatment during the times of Rasulullah ﷺ was largely performed solely by doctors, who would personally visit the patient to diagnose abnormalities and provide medications to those who were in need. Placing the bulk of the biological and physiological responsibilities of a patient on the doctor alone, nurses were limited in their duties to providing physical comfort and emotional support.
Front door of ancient hospital of Salé in Morocco designed by Islamic architects and managed by ancient Islamic physicians.
Post-Prophetic to Middle Ages Era (632–1500 AD)
With the diminishing intensity of holy wars and mass civil unrest that defined the climate of Islamic culture during the reign of Rasulullah ﷺ, advancements in technology and architecture resulted in the construction of many new hospitals and methods for treating the sick. Though nurses in this period of time were still relegated to rudimentary and noninvasive duties like serving food to patients and administering medicinal liquids, religious and social norms of the times necessitated the segregation of hospital wards based on gender, with males treating males and females treating females.While there has been some relaxation of segregation in contemporary times, the values of many traditional Islamic people are for hospitals and their policies to reflect these past segregation practice.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia's - Emergence as Nursing Leader.
Though still highly limited in the invasiveness of their work, a shift in widely accepted cultural expectoration's regarding a woman's role in the hospital provided many the opportunity to emerge as leaders in a field previously dominated solely by men. A charismatic and capable leader, published records testify that Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA, who practiced at the time Muhammad, was the first Muslim nurse.]While there is slight controversy in who is "technically" the first surgeon and nurse in history, Middle Eastern countries attribute the status of the first ever nurse to Rufaida, a Muslim surgeon and nurse.
Origin of Intensive Care Unit or Acute Care.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA implemented her clinical skills and medical experience into developing the first ever documented mobile care units that were able to meet the medical needs of the community. The scope of the majority of her work in her organized medical command units consisted primarily in hygiene and stabilizing patients prior to further and more invasive medical procedures. During military expeditions, Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA led groups of volunteer nurses who went to the battlefield and treated the casualties. She participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Khaibar, and others.
The Mosque at Salman, location of the Battle of The Trench where Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA treated injured.
During times of peace, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA continued her involvement with humanitarian efforts by providing assistance to Muslims who were in need.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA had trained a group of women companions as nurses. When Rasulullah ﷺ's army was getting ready to go to the battle of Khaibar (battle of the trench), Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA and the group of volunteer nurses went to Rasulullah ﷺ. They asked him for permission "O Rasul of Allah, we want to go out with you to the battle and treat the injured and help Muslims as much as we can". Rasulullah ﷺ gave them permission to go. The nurse volunteers did such a good job that Rasulullah ﷺ assigned a share of the booty to Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA. Her share was equivalent to that of soldiers who had actually fought. This was in recognition of her medical and nursing work.
|The 1st Hospital well organised administration|
in the world - Sale' Hospital in Morocco. The remain
of the door panel and entrance of the hospital
design by Islamic Architect and manage
by the doctors and surgeon.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA - Award in Nursing.
Each year the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland at the University of Bahrain awards one student the coveted and prestigious Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA Prize in Nursing. The award winner determined by a panel of senior clinical medical staff members, the Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA Prize in Nursing is given to the student who consistently excels in delivering superb nursing care to patients.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamy RA developed the first ever documented mobile units’ health care. That was able to meet the medical needs of the community. The founder of first School of Nursing in Islamic world.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA advocated for preventative care and recognized the importance of health education. She also became involved in social work within the community. The Rasulullah ﷺ gave her permission to erect a tent within a mosque and deliver health-related teachings to the community.
During military expeditions, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA led groups of volunteer nurses who went to the battlefield and treated the casualties. She participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Khaibar, and others.
RUFAIDA AL-ASLAMIA رفيدة الأسلمية – 1st CENTURY – MEDINA, SAUDI ARABIA
Embroidered portrait of Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA, head and shoulders. She is staring straight ahead and wearing a blue and white hijab.
Rufaida Al-Aslamia is considered the first Muslim nurse and social worker. Born in Madinah sometime in the 7th century, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s family were among the first to have converted to Islam and it is said that she knew Rasulullah ﷺ personally.
Her father was a physician by trade, and taught his daughter the skills needed to care for the sick and wounded. At a time in history defined by a number of holy wars, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s help was invaluable on the battlefield, and she cut her teeth in desert field hospitals.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s was also an excellent organizer and clearly a charismatic personality – in the highly male dominated field of medicine she was able to flourish and thrive. She trained other women in nursing, and introduced the first documented mobile care units which aimed to stabilize the wounded after battles and prepare them for further procedures.
Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s team of volunteer nurses were so successful that following one battle Rasulullah ﷺ ensured that she receive the same portion of war booty due to soldier who had fought – one of the earliest examples of equal pay
In addition to her role in battlefield healthcare, Saidatuna Rufaida Al-Aslamia RA’s was interested in disease and its causes among ordinary people. She is recorded as having personally worked in poor communities encouraging hygiene and attempting to alleviate social problems which led to poor health.
In Islam, nurses provide healthcare services to patients, families and communities as a manifestation of love for Allah and Rasulullah ﷺ. The nursing profession is not new to Islam. Islamic traditions include sympathy for and responsibility toward those in need. This perspective had emerged during the development of Islam as a religion, culture, and civilization.
Ethos of health care service in Islam
1 Ethos of health care service
2 Approach to health care service
3 First Muslim nurse
4 Nursing in hospitals
In Islamic traditions, caring is the manifestation of love for Allah and Rasulullah ﷺ. Caring in Islam, however, is more than the act of empathy; instead, it consists of being responsible for, sensitive to, and concerned with those in need, namely the weak, the suffering and the outcasts of society. This act of caring is further divided into three principles: intention, thought, and action. Intention and thought refer to who, what, where, when and why to care, whereas action is related to the knowledge necessary to be able to care. In short, health care is deemed as service to the patients and to Allah, as opposed to other professions that are commercial-based. This ethos was the fundamental motivating factor for the majority of the doctors and nurses in the history of Islam.
Approach to health care services in Islam
Another aspect of Islamic health care service that distinguishes it from the contemporary Western health care industry is the holistic approach to health and wellbeing taken. This holistic approach consists of both treating the organic basis of the ailments and providing spiritual support for the patient. This spiritual component comes in the form of Tawheed (Oneness of Allah), a dimension lacking in current Western models of nursing and, thus, could pose as a challenge for application of this model of nursing to Muslim patients as it does not meet their holistic needs.
Nursing in hospitals of the Medieval Muslim Society
In hospitals built in the Medieval Muslim society male nurses tended to male patients and female nurses to female patients. The hospital in Al-Qayrawan (Kairouan in English) was especially unique among Muslim hospitals for several reasons. Built in 830 by the order of the Prince Ziyadat Allah I of Ifriqiya (817–838), the Al-Dimnah Hospital, constructed in the Dimnah region close to the great mosque of Al Qayrawan, was quite ahead of its time. It had the innovation of having a waiting area for visitors, not to mention that the first official female nurses were hired from Sudan to work in this hospital. Moreover, aside from regular physicians working there, a group of religious imams who also practiced medicine, called Fugaha al-Badan, provided service as well, likely by tending the patients’ spiritual needs.
Know more about the heritage in science and health technology in Islam related to Al Qayrawan Al Dimnah in nowadays Tunisia. here
(Al-Osimy, 1994; Jan, 1996